Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts

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However, if parents and children maintain a good relationship throughout the divorce process, it could act as a buffer and reduce the negative effects of the experience. A positive parent-child relationship after parental divorce may also be facilitated by the child's understanding of divorce. Understanding the complexity of the situation and not dwelling on the negative aspects may actually assist a young adult's adjustment, as well as their success in their own romantic relationships.

Despite the increasing need for autonomy that emerging adults experience, there is also a continuing need for support from parents, although this need is often different and less dependent than that of children and earlier adolescents. Many people over the age of 18 still require financial support in order to further their education and career, [55] despite an otherwise independent lifestyle.

Furthermore, emotional support remains important during this transition period. Parental engagement with low marital conflict results in better adjustment for college students. Parental support may come in the form of co-residence, which has varied effects on an emerging adult's adjustment.

The proportion of young adults living with their parents has steadily increased in recent years, largely due to financial strain, difficulty finding employment, and the necessity of higher education in the job field. In households with lower socioeconomic status, this arrangement may have the added benefit of the young adult providing support for the family, both financial and otherwise. Co-residence can also have negative effects on an emerging adult's adjustment and autonomy. This may hinder parents' ability to acknowledge their child as an adult, [59] while home-leaving promotes psychological growth and satisfying adult-to-adult relationships with parents characterized by less confrontation.

There are a wide variety of factors that influence sexual relationships during emerging adulthood; this includes beliefs about certain sexual behaviors and marriage. For example, among emerging adults in the United States, it is common for oral sex to not be considered "real sex". As individuals move through emerging adulthood, they are more likely to engage in monogamous sexual relationships and practice safe sex.

Across most OECD countries, marriage rates are falling, the age at first marriage is rising, [62] and cohabitation among unmarried couples is increasing.

What Is Sociocultural Theory?

Housing affordability has been linked to home ownership rates, and demographic researchers have argued for a link between the rising age at first marriage and the rising age of first home ownership. This includes countries like the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, South Korea, and Australia, all of which have significantly higher median incomes and educational attainment and significantly lower rates of illness, disease, and early death.

The theory of emerging adulthood is specifically applicable to cultures within these OECD nations, [73] and as a stage of development has only emerged over the past half century. Furthermore, emerging adulthood occurs only within societies that allow for occupational shifts, with emerging adults often experiencing frequent job changes before settling on particular job by the age of Up until the latter portion of the 20th century in OECD countries, and contemporarily in developing countries around the world, young people made the transition from adolescence to young adulthood around or by the age of 22, when they settled into long-lasting, obligation-filled familial and occupational roles.

Among OECD countries, there is a general "one size fits all" model in regards to emerging adulthood, having all undergone the same demographic changes that resulted in this new stage of development between adolescence and young adulthood. However, the shape emerging adulthood takes can even vary between different OECD countries, [73] and researchers have only recently begun exploring such cross-national differences. Emerging adult communities in East Asia may be most dissimilar from their European and American counterparts, for while they share the benefits of affluent societies with strong education and welfare systems, they do not share as strong a sense of individualization.

Chapter 13. Aging and the Elderly

Historically and currently, East Asian cultures have emphasized collectivism more so than those in the West. For example, European and American emerging adults consistently list financial independence as a key marker of adulthood, while Asian emerging adults consistently list capable of supporting parents financially as a marker with equal weight. While emerging adulthood exemplars are found mainly within the middle and upper classes of OECD countries, the stage of development still seems to occur across classes, with the main difference between different ones being length—on average, young people in lower social classes tend to enter adulthood two years before those in upper classes.

While emerging adulthood occurs on a wide scale only in OECD countries, developing countries may also exhibit similar phenomena in certain population subgroups. In contrast to those in poor or rural parts of developing nations, who have no emerging adulthood and sometimes no adolescence due to comparatively early entry into marriage and adult-like work, young people in wealthier urban classes have begun to enter stages of development that resemble emerging adulthood, and the amount to do so is rising. One finds examples of such a situation among the middle class young people in India, who lead the globalized economic sector while still, for the most part, preferring to have arranged marriages and taking care of their parents in old age.

Emerging adulthood is not just an idea being talked about by psychologists, the media has propagated the concept as well.

Hollywood has produced multiple movies where the main conflict seems to be a "grown" adult's reluctance to actually "grow" up and take on responsibility. Failure to Launch and Step Brothers are extreme examples of this concept. While most takes on emerging adulthood and the problems that it can cause are shown in a light-humored attempt to poke fun at the idea, a few films have taken a more serious approach to the plight.

My Dad Says and Big Lake. However, it is not just on television where society sees the world becoming aware of this trend. In spring , The New Yorker magazine showcased a picture of a post-grad hanging his PhD on the wall of his bedroom as his parents stood in the doorway. News sources about the topic are abundant. Nationwide, it is being found that people entering their 20s are faced with multitudes of living problems creating problems that this age group has received a lot of attention for.

The Occupy movement is an example of what has happened to the youth of today and exhibits the frustration of today's emerging adults. The concept of emerging adulthood has not been without its criticisms. Sociologists have pinpointed that it neglects class differences. A more theoretical criticism comes from developmental psychologists, who regard all stage theories as outdated.

They argue that development is a dynamic interactive process, which is different for every individual, because every individual has their own experiences.

Psychodynamic Theories of Human Development: Freud and Erikson

Inventing a stage that only describes not explains a time period in the life of a few individuals mostly white middle class young people living in Western societies within this decade , and has nothing to say about people living in different conditions or different points in history is not a scientific approach. Arnett has taken up some of these critical points in public discussion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Early adulthood disambiguation. American Psychologist. Loreto Child Development Perspectives.

Huffington Post. Retrieved August 24, The New York Times. Alabama Tells Us about Emerging Adults and the Direction of Contemporary Youth Services" , Missouri Law Review , 78 4 , In recent decades, sociologists and psychologists have begun to embrace a new developmental stage of 'emerging adulthood,' initially articulated by Professor Jeffrey Arnett. Lerner, A. Brooks-Gunn Eds. New York: Garland. Developmental Psychology. Conceptions of the transition to adulthood from adolescence through midlife.

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The median marriage age for men was around 22, and married couples usually had their first child about one year after their wedding day. All told, for most young people half a century ago, their teenage adolescence led quickly and directly to stable adult roles in love and work by their late teens or early twenties.

These roles would form the structure of their adult lives for decades to come.

Now all that has changed. The early twenties are not a time of entering stable adult work but a time of immense job instability: In the United States, the average number of job changes from ages 20 to 29 is seven. The median age of entering marriage in the United States is now 27 for women and 29 for men U.

Bureau of the Census, Consequently, a new stage of the life span, emerging adulthood , has been created, lasting from the late teens through the mid-twenties, roughly ages 18 to Five characteristics distinguish emerging adulthood from other life stages Arnett, Emerging adulthood is:. Perhaps the most distinctive characteristic of emerging adulthood is that it is the age of identity explorations.

8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson

That is, it is an age when people explore various possibilities in love and work as they move toward making enduring choices. Through trying out these different possibilities, they develop a more definite identity, including an understanding of who they are, what their capabilities and limitations are, what their beliefs and values are, and how they fit into the society around them. The explorations of emerging adulthood also make it the age of instability. As emerging adults explore different possibilities in love and work, their lives are often unstable.

A good illustration of this instability is their frequent moves from one residence to another. Rates of residential change in American society are much higher at ages 18 to 29 than at any other period of life Arnett, They may move again when they drop out of college or when they graduate. They may move to cohabit with a romantic partner, and then move out when the relationship ends. Some move to another part of the country or the world to study or work. Emerging adulthood is also a self-focused age. Another distinctive feature of emerging adulthood is that it is an age of feeling in-between, not adolescent but not fully adult, either.

It is only when people reach their late twenties and early thirties that a clear majority feels adult.

Most emerging adults have the subjective feeling of being in a transitional period of life, on the way to adulthood but not there yet. It tends to be an age of high hopes and great expectations, in part because few of their dreams have been tested in the fires of real life. The five features proposed in the theory of emerging adulthood originally were based on research involving about Americans between ages 18 and 29 from various ethnic groups, social classes, and geographical regions Arnett, 4.

To what extent does the theory of emerging adulthood apply internationally? The answer to this question depends greatly on what part of the world is considered. The current population of OECD countries also called developed countries is 1. The rest of the human population resides in developing countries , which have much lower median incomes; much lower median educational attainment; and much higher incidence of illness, disease, and early death.

Let us consider emerging adulthood in OECD countries first, then in developing countries. The same demographic changes as described above for the United States have taken place in other OECD countries as well. Sociocultural theory grew from the work of seminal psychologist Lev Vygotsky , who believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and the culture at large were responsible for developing higher order functions.

According to Vygotsky, learning has its basis in interacting with other people. Once this has occurred, the information is then integrated on the individual level:. Vygotsky was a contemporary of other great thinkers such as Freud , Skinner , and Piaget , but his early death at age 37 and the suppression of his work in Stalinist Russia left him in relative obscurity until fairly recently.

As his work became more widely published, his ideas have grown increasingly influential in areas including child development, cognitive psychology , and education. Sociocultural theory focuses not only how adults and peers influence individual learning, but also on how cultural beliefs and attitudes impact how instruction and learning take place.

Theories of Child Development: The MGH Clay Center

According to Vygotsky, children are born with basic biological constraints on their minds. Each culture, however, provides what he referred to as 'tools of intellectual adaptation. For example, while one culture might emphasize memory strategies such as note-taking, other cultures might utilize tools like reminders or rote memorization. So how does Vygotsky's sociocultural theory differ from Piaget's theory of cognitive development? First, Vygotsky placed a greater emphasis on how social factors influence development.

Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts
Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts
Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts
Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts
Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts

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