Nicotinoid Insecticides and the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor


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The perceived safety of neonicotinoids has led to a sharp increase in their use in the United States and globally, since they were first introduced in Although neonicotinoids are designed to be selectively toxic to invertebrates, effects on other organisms are being reported. However, toxicity information on birds is particularly limited. Birds are primarily exposed to neonicotinoids orally feeding, preening , by inhalation, or dermally depending on whether the pesticide is applied by aerial spraying or as a seed coating.

Because neonicotinoid pesticides are neurotoxins, they affect elements of stress response and locomotion in vertebrates. Take-off flight and escape ability of exposed quail are being studied to identify potential impacts of imidacloprid on behaviors critical for survival. Acute oral exposure to imidacloprid 12 ng was shown to increase neuronal activity in the MBs but not in the ALs of living bees [ 45 ]. The different expression of nAchR subunits between the MBs and the ALs might explain the variability of the neuronal response to nAchR agonists between these regions [ 33 ].

Oral exposure of bees to various neonicotinoids was shown to increase the expression of genes coding for nAchR subunits.