Ecosystem services are benefits obtained from the ecosystem provided to the humans through the transformation of resources or environmental assets, including land, water, vegetation and atmosphere into a flow of essential goods and services e. According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [ 2 ], ecosystem services can be categorised as regulating, cultural or provisioning services.
In this paper, we focus on the provisioning services which are purely the products obtained from the ecosystem such as food. According to Kilonzi et al. This is mainly because of the rewetting of the tropical peat swamp in central Kalimantan, a recovery measure to reduce carbon emissions from the forest fires experienced in the region [ 4 ]. We base our research on Social Network Analysis SNA concept whereby we focus on the social capital of the stakeholders and analyse their potential in the management of the aquaculture projects as well as the overall characteristics of the network.
It is the quality of relationship among and between people that promotes strong and resilient network of individuals [ 5 ]. Social network analysis therefore offers tools that enhance understanding of power structure within a community by identifying the links between social capital and management of the natural resources [ 6 ]. It shows the existing subgroups in a network structure and enhances the understanding of the specializations around livelihood activities [ 7 ]. The two key elements of social network that we focus on are the stakeholders of the aquaculture projects known as nodes and their relations known as social ties.
In the SNA concept, diverse actors in the social network contribute to the shaping of the society on how to use and access the natural resources such as forest and water systems whereby various interactions among the community influence how people approach and, govern the natural resources [ 9 , 10 ]. For instance, governance through intra-community relationships includes activities such as local participations in the increase in wildfire risk prevention actions [ 11 ], and forest management information flow through various groups such as women and youth groups.
On the other hand, inter — community relationships play the bridging role in social capital [ 12 ]. Their weak ties increase adaptability, social and ecological resilience [ 13 ], in the forest management. A good example of bridging role was in Sweden in a model forest establishment [ 14 ].
Researchers have pointed out the role of Social network in the management of forests by creating social norms. Brooks [ 15 ] proposed a model depicting the role of social networks in a community in the endogenous creation of informal rules. He explains that after a community becomes aware of the existing forest problems surrounding them, people start implementing good practices which eventually become formalized.
Ros-Tonen et al. Relationship between local institutions and social capital through the provisioning of anchoring role has been proved in a case study of villages in Paraguay [ 17 ]. Kim et al. According to Michele Barnes-Mauthe et al. Therefore, it is important to consider the quality of relationship among people working together to understand the common set expectations, the shared values and the trust amongst the individuals. This is mainly because for instance, weak social capital can result to conflicting values and lack of trust and strong social capital can lead to harmonious coexistence [ 20 ].
Social capital can be used to determine the stakeholders who emerge as influential in a natural resource management institution thereby empowering or disempowering the stakeholders [ 19 ]. Christina Prell et al. SNA measures have been suggested as important for the adaptive management of natural resources and for the ability of communities or groups to engage in a collective action for a successful project. Focus has been put on the bridging social capital which is the within group interaction and not the interaction between groups known as bridging social capital [ 23 ].
Thus, in our study, we address social networks as real observable phenomena that can be measured using quantitative techniques [ 24 ] and analysed using social network analysis [ 25 , 26 ].
IUFRO Spotlight #12 – Putting production from peatlands in perspective
We focus on stakeholder identification and attribute analysis of two major aquaculture projects in central Kalimantan. We attempt to find out the position of the stakeholders in the network, their attributes and the role that they play or ought to play to ensure the success of the aquaculture projects they help to manage in order to enhance fish quantity in the natural peatlands by offering alternative source of production from the aquaculture.
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We emphasize on power and influence [ 27 , 28 ], since social networks are important in studying different kinds of influence phenomena. There is a well-established study on how social network influences behaviour among people to adopt new practices that affect their lives [ 29 - 31 ]. This influence has resulted to positive impacts in the social network such as behaviour change, social network change, improve organizational efficiency, enhance social change, bringing of new ideas and innovations in the network among others [ 13 , 29 ], [ 31 - 34 ].
This research was based in central Kalimantan, in Indonesia, in Hampangen village which borders Hampangen peatland forest, an important source of livelihood to the surrounding communities. In the recent past, central Kalimantan has been experiencing forest fires caused by anthropogenic activities which have resulted to high carbon emissions. To salvage the situation, the government set strict rules on use of the peatland forest which resulted to permanent closure of timber related industries rendering the people jobless.
To protect the peatland forest ecosystem and its services and offer income to the communities, the government initiated alternative livelihood projects such as aquaculture projects. The fish species kept are highly adaptable to the local conditions and can live in waters with low levels of dissolved oxygen and low pH levels such as peatland [ 35 ].
- The Pathfinder Process e-book.
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The interviews and questionnaires were administered to the 11 members of each group. We first sought out the formation criteria of the groups. Each group is composed of ten members whose income should not be more than 6 USD per day; they should come from the same village and commit to tropical peatland conservation. After the members meet the required conditions, they form a group and come up with a constitution which is handed to the government with the help of an influential member of the group or from the village.
The government goes through the constitution if accepted; the group is given financial support to start the project in form of fishing materials and fingerlings all worth USD. Three officials in each group are also given free training on how to manage fish farm that then comes to teach the other members. These ponds are built on the natural peatlands and generally depend on rainwater.
The SNA data were collected through interviews and name generator questionnaires to the members of each of the two aquaculture groups. Questions and Interviews required each member to nominate the most influential members up to 5 and indicate the frequency of communication.
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Least communication got a score of 1; most communication score of 5. This was to get the relations among actors, their position in the network and how relations are structured into overall network pattern. We examined the SNA measures in each group to determine the role of SNA in ES enhancement by examining the characteristics of each group and its members. Tables 1 and 2 show the calculated degree centrality for both indegree and outdegree, While Figures 1 and 2 show the visually directed ties for indegree and outdegree in the MPFG and HIFG networks, respectively.
The thicker the lines of connection between stakeholders, the more the frequency of communication. The core stakeholders are located at the centre of the network while the periphery members are at the far edges of the network. Each group consists of 11 stakeholders, leaders being chairperson, secretary, treasurer and the organizing secretary whom we referred to as leader 1, leader 2, leader 3, leader 4 and the other stakeholders without any leading role were referred to as member 1, member 2, etc. Degree centrality indegree and outdegree : Indegree and outdegree of each actor was examined by counting the number of stakeholders who communicate to each actor as shown in Figure 1.
Eyes on the livelihoods of peatland communities - CIFOR Forests News
For indegree we counted the incoming ties indicated by the arrows representing the number of stakeholders who communicate to the actor. For outdegree we counted the outgoing ties for the stakeholder whom an actor communicates to. However, he has an outdegree of 1, which means despite his popularity, he communicates to only one stakeholder within the network hence less influential. Utilization of Peatlands 3.
Bases of Peatland Forestry 4.
Eyes on the livelihoods of peatland communities
Forest Drainage 5. Forest Fertilization 6. Forest Management on Peatlands 7. Environmental Effects of Peatland Forestry. Notes Includes bibliographical references p.
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